Merchant of Emden, The

Anon. (1594)

Historical Records

Performance Records

Playlists in Philip Henslowe's diary

Fol. 9v (Greg I. 18)

ye 30 of Julye 1594     . . ne . . . .            Res at the marchant of eamden . . . iijli viijs

Book Trade Records

Stationers' Register

22 March 1594 (CLIO, 2.646)

Abell Jeffes./.       Entred for his Copie vnder th[e h]ande of Master Cawood a ballad
      entituled a moste sweete songe of an Englishe merchant that killed a
      man in Guidine and was for the same Judged to lose his head and
      howe in th[e] ende a mayden saved his lyfe by T. DELONEY    vjd./ R

Theatrical Provenance

The play is the fourth “ne” offering by the Admiral’s Men on their return to the Rose in June of 1594 from the 10-day run at Newington. Its combination of high receipts and solo performance has aroused scholarly curiosity about its commercial value but generated no answers.

Probable Genre(s)

Realistic T. C. [tragicomedy] ? (Harbage)

Possible Narrative and Dramatic Sources or Analogues

Malone reads "Emden" as "Candia," an opinion of no influence on later theater historians (p. 295, n.8). Collier suggests, and Greg II agrees (p. 166, #48), that the play told the story in a ballad by Thomas Deloney, "A Most Sweet Song of an English Merchant, borne at Chichester” (p. 38, n.1).

In the ballad (EBBA), a rich English merchant from Chichester quarrels with and kills a German in “Emden Towne.” The merchant is tried, found guilty, and taken to a scaffold in the market square to be beheaded. A large crowd gathers, where there is considerable sympathy for the condemned man among the women in the crowd but also among the merchants, whose offer of £2000 to set him free is denied. The merchant, dressed in fine clothes, delivers a scaffold speech full of remorse for having killed the man. He offers compensation of £100 each to the widow and two children, asking only that they speak well of Englishmen, even though he has committed this crime. Ten young women in the crowd then step forward, citing a local law that allows his death sentence to be cancelled if he chooses one of them for his love. They jockey among themselves for the opportunity to save him, but he turns them down, saying he is unworthy. In his refusal, he says the law cannot touch his goods, and he has a chest with £1000 of gold, which he gives to them all. At this, another young woman steps forward and woos him with a kiss. He chooses her. The crowd cheers while she solicits the duke, who grants her wish. In an epithalamic progress to the scaffold to claim her groom, the bride leads the merchant straight to the church; they marry and live happily ever after.

Listen to a recording of the ballad here, via the 100 Ballads project.

References to the Play

Greg II thinks it “just possible” that a reference to “the signiory of Emden” in Doctor Faustus could be related to this play (p. 166, #48).

The headnote to the ballad in the Roxburghe collection suggests tenuous connections between the ballad and the Famous Historie of Fryer Bacon, with a song to the tune of “A Rich Merchantman,” and from that source to Robert Greene’s play, Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay.

Critical Commentary

Malone queried the spelling of "eamden," wondering if it might be "Candia" (p. 295, n.8). Fleay had no opinion (2.302 #153). Collier offered the ballad, "A most sweet Song of an English Merchant, borne at Chichester," as the basis of the narrative of the play (p. 38, n.1), and Greg II agreed (p. 166, #48). Wiggins, Catalogue #961 also agrees.

The headnote to the ballad in the Roxburghe collection cites the diary of John Manningham for its three entries relating to the European custom of scaffold marriages (Manningham, 12 December 1602 ). Manningham phrases the custom thusly: “yf anie notorious professed strumpet will begg for a husband a man which is going to execution, he shal be reprieved, and she may obteine a pardon, and marry him, that both their ill lives may be bettered by so holie an action” ([1] as qtd. in Roxburghe, vol. 1, p. 319 [2]). The headnote quotes more of Manningham, including a popular joke in which a man and woman exchange insults over his criminality and her undesirability.

Mann, in a note on the Deloney ballad (p. 599), capitalizing on the information in the headnote to the ballad in the Roxburghe collection, adds further a reference to the custom in the Dictionnaire Universel (sub Mariage), plus a use of the custom by Balzac. Mann adds that he does not know how the custom or the Chichester merchant became associated with Emden, “the flourishing German seaport of the sixteenth century,” but he thinks it unlikely “that Deloney chose these localities out of mere caprice” (p. 600).

Gurr lists the play as one of the oddities of solo performances despite high receipts (p. 94).

For What It’s Worth

Information welcome

Works Cited

Chappell, William, ed. The Roxburghe Ballads. Vol. 1. London:Taylor and Company, 1871 [3].
Gurr, Andrew. Shakespeare’s Opposites: The Admiral’s Company 1594-1625. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
Mann, Francis Oscar. The Works of Thomas Deloney. Oxford: Clarendon, 1912. Roxburghe Ballads, vol. 1, 318-25.
Manningham, John. The Project Gutenberg EBook of Diary of John Manningham, by John Manningham [4].

Site created and maintained by Roslyn L. Knutson, Professor Emerita, University of Arkansas at Little Rock; updated, 19 March 2012.