Difference between revisions of "Phocasse (Focas)"

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==Theatrical Provenance==
 
==Theatrical Provenance==
  
<Enter information about which company performed the play, and where/when it was performed, etc.>
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Introduced as a new play by the Admiral's men in the same run which saw ''[[Julian the Apostate]]'' and ''[[Tamar Cham]]'' (or ''Tambercame'') marked "ne". It received 7 performances. Martin Slater was paid £7 on behalf of the Admiral's men for this and 4 other books (''[[Pythagoras]]'', ''[[Alexander and Lodowick]]'', and the two parts of [[Hercules, Parts 1 & 2|''Hercules'']]) on the 16 of May 1598, which suggests (as Chambers notes) that he had retained ownership of these plays when he left the company (2.167).
 
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<br>
 
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<br>
 
==Probable Genre(s)==
 
==Probable Genre(s)==
  
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==Possible Narrative and Dramatic Sources or Analogues==
 
==Possible Narrative and Dramatic Sources or Analogues==
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{| style="float: right; border: 1px solid #BBB; margin: .46em 0 0 .2em;"
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|- style="font-size: 86%;"
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| valign="top" |[[Image:focas.jpg|focas.jpg]]<!--
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  --><br /> ''From Rainolde fol.165 (EEBO)''.
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|}
  
Phocas is often mentioned in early modern texts. For example, a 1554 reprint of John Lydgate's translation of Boccaccio contains a chapter, "Hovve the Emperoure Mauricius hys wyfe and hys children were slayne at Calcidony", which provides a brief summary:
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Phocas is often mentioned in early modern texts. Here's one of the more succinct summaries of the Emperor's barbarous ways --- a chronicle of Roman Emperors, by Richard Rainolde, in which the marginal note simply designates Phocas "a tyrant":
 
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<blockquote>
<blockquote>In Asia this Emperour Maurice was slain,<br>
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Phocas  a base Centurion and a Thracian in ye seditious vprore was created an Emperour. He murtheringe his maister and kinge Mauritius of whom he was brought vp, this Phocas gouerned vii. yeares, he was Crowned at Constantinople of the patriarcke Ciriacus. Assone as Mauritius was slaine, immediatly he exercised crueltye against his frends: After he was placed in the Emperial seate without all nobility, as by bloudye practises he obtayned the same, so he exercised himselfe to the destruction of the Romaines with all crueltye tormenting them, geuen ouer to all abhomination. He toke awaye other mens wyues from their husbands: he made much of wicked persons: He wasted the Romayne Empyre of their riches and treasures: he liued at Rome in all beastly dronkennes, and suffered the Romaine Empyre to be spoyled of the Persians, of the Hunnes, and of Caganus kinge of Hungarye who~ I spake of before. The wrathe of God fell vpon this murtherer, and all that hoast & power of men which was ye ouerthrow of Mauritius and priuye to his death. For Cosroes in .ii. great battailes made slaughter of the Romaynes infinitlye, and ye rest he ledde away captiues. This Cosroes wanne from the Romaynes Hierusalem, and murthered there a greate nomber of Christia~s, he possessed the Dominion of Cyria & destroyed manye Princes.
In the cite that called is Calcidony,<br>
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<br><br>
Al his housholde and many good Romaine<br>
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Phocas thorow his ill life came in hatred, not onlye of the Romaynes, but also of al other Princes: ye murther of Mauritius committed by Phocas was not forgotten. Priscus who in the time of Mauritius was one of his chiefe Captaynes, & also a Duke & sonne in law to Phocas: also Heraclius Preside~t in Affrica whose wyfe Phocas had taken away, all these conspyred against Phocas to destroy him. This was ye effect of their purpose, that at one time Priscus shoulde bringe his hoast of Thracians to Consta~tinople, & Heraclius his hoast out of Affrica to Consta~tinople also, Photius with another part to set vpon Phocas in his Pallace, wher small resista~ce was made, these entring ye Emperours house, toke Phocas & brought him to Heraclius ye sonne of Heracliona who was then generall of the partes in Assyria. Immediatly the men of warre cut of his legges and armes, and cutte of his priuities, and last of all his head. This was the ende of that tyrant, who before murthered the Emperour Mauritius, hys wyfe, his children, his kinsfolke and frendes, and plagued wt all calamyes the Romaynes: God neuer leaueth vnpunished any murther committed, & most of all he scourgeth the bloudye factes of those who seekes to destroy theyr owne king or Prince, and be domesticall vipers to theyr owne countrye. (Fols.165<sup>r-v</sup>)
By Phocas & perciēs (as had is in memorye)<br>
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</blockquote>
And Phocas after for his vaynglory<br>
 
Slaine by Heraclius, he thā was Emperour<br>
 
Four & twenty wynter he was gouernour.</blockquote>
 
  
  
 
Purchase also summarises the key details of the Roman emperor's reign:
 
Purchase also summarises the key details of the Roman emperor's reign:
  
<blockquote>This ''Cosroes'' raigned nine and thirtie yeares. Hee held peace with the Romanes whiles ''Mauritius'' liued; but when ''Phocas'' cruelly and treacherously had slaine him, a world of euils at once assaulted the Empire. The Germanes, Gaules, Italians, Hunnes, and Persians, by their Armies afflicted the publike State; and the Roman Bishop then began to aspire to an vniuersall Soueraignetie, which that ''Murtherer'' first entitled him vnto. That Armie which was yet redde with the bloud of ''Mauritius'', by the Persians sword was punished, and died in their owne bloud: who hauing ouerthrowne the Romanes in two battailes, possessed Mesopotamia, Syria, Aegypt, Palaestina, and Phoenicia. He entred Ierusalem, slew and captiued many Christians, and carried thence the ''Crosse''. Against the Iberians, Armenians, Cappadocians, Galatians, Paph|lagonians, euen vnto Chalcedon, hee preuailed. Thus did GOD punish that Murtherer, and besides (to pay him in his owne coyne) ''Priscus'', ''Heraclon'', and ''Heraclius'' conspired against this Conspirer, and murthered the Murtherer, and hauing cut off his Priuities, and his Head, hurled him into the Sea, and destroyed his Issue. (308)</blockquote>
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<blockquote>This ''Cosroes'' raigned nine and thirtie yeares. Hee held peace with the Romanes whiles ''Mauritius'' liued; but when ''Phocas'' cruelly and treacherously had slaine him, a world of euils at once assaulted the Empire. The Germanes, Gaules, Italians, Hunnes, and Persians, by their Armies afflicted the publike State; and the Roman Bishop then began to aspire to an vniuersall Soueraignetie, which that ''Murtherer'' first entitled him vnto. That Armie which was yet redde with the bloud of ''Mauritius'', by the Persians sword was punished, and died in their owne bloud: who hauing ouerthrowne the Romanes in two battailes, possessed Mesopotamia, Syria, Aegypt, Palaestina, and Phoenicia. He entred Ierusalem, slew and captiued many Christians, and carried thence the ''Crosse''. Against the Iberians, Armenians, Cappadocians, Galatians, Paphlagonians, euen vnto Chalcedon, hee preuailed. Thus did GOD punish that Murtherer, and besides (to pay him in his owne coyne) ''Priscus'', ''Heraclon'', and ''Heraclius'' conspired against this Conspirer, and murthered the Murtherer, and hauing cut off his Priuities, and his Head, hurled him into the Sea, and destroyed his Issue. (308)</blockquote>
 
<br>
 
<br>
 
Greg observes that "Phocas, a centurion, was elected Emperor of Constantinople in 606, and was deposed and killed by Heraclius in 610" [http://www.archive.org/stream/henslowesdiary02hensuoft#page/180/mode/2up (Greg 2.180)].
 
Greg observes that "Phocas, a centurion, was elected Emperor of Constantinople in 606, and was deposed and killed by Heraclius in 610" [http://www.archive.org/stream/henslowesdiary02hensuoft#page/180/mode/2up (Greg 2.180)].
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==References to the Play==
 
==References to the Play==
  
<List any known or conjectured references to the lost play here.>
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(information welcome)
  
  
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==For What It's Worth==
 
==For What It's Worth==
  
<Enter any miscellaneous points that may be relevant, but don't fit into the above categories. This is the best place for highly conjectural thoughts.>
 
  
  
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<div style="padding-left: 2em; text-indent: -2em;">Bentley 3.</div><br>
 
<div style="padding-left: 2em; text-indent: -2em;">Bentley 3.</div><br>
<div style="padding-left: 2em; text-indent: -2em;">Boccaccio, Giovanni. ''The tragedies, gathered by Ihon Bochas, of all such princes as fell from theyr estates throughe the mutability of fortune since the creacion of Adam, vntil his time wherin may be seen what vices bring menne to destruccion, wyth notable warninges howe the like may be auoyded. Translated into Englysh by Iohn Lidgate, monke of Burye.'' London, 1554.
 
</div><br>
 
 
<div style="padding-left: 2em; text-indent: -2em;">Greg 2.</div><br>
 
<div style="padding-left: 2em; text-indent: -2em;">Greg 2.</div><br>
 
<div style="padding-left: 2em; text-indent: -2em;">Purchase, Samuel. ''Purchas his pilgrimage. Or Relations of the vvorld and the religions obserued in all ages and places discouered, from the Creation vnto this present. In foure partes. This first containeth a theologicall and geographicall historie of Asia, Africa, and America, with the ilands adiacent. Declaring the ancient religions before the Floud ... With briefe descriptions of the countries, nations, states, discoueries, priuate and publike customes, and the most remarkable rarities of nature, or humane industrie, in the same. By Samuel Purchas, minister at Estwood in Essex.'' London, 1613.</div><br>
 
<div style="padding-left: 2em; text-indent: -2em;">Purchase, Samuel. ''Purchas his pilgrimage. Or Relations of the vvorld and the religions obserued in all ages and places discouered, from the Creation vnto this present. In foure partes. This first containeth a theologicall and geographicall historie of Asia, Africa, and America, with the ilands adiacent. Declaring the ancient religions before the Floud ... With briefe descriptions of the countries, nations, states, discoueries, priuate and publike customes, and the most remarkable rarities of nature, or humane industrie, in the same. By Samuel Purchas, minister at Estwood in Essex.'' London, 1613.</div><br>
 
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<div style="padding-left: 2em; text-indent: -2em;">Rainolde, Richard. ''A chronicle of all the noble emperours of the Romaines from Iulius Caesar, orderly to this moste victorious Emperour Maximilian, that now gouerneth, with the great warres of Iulius Caesar, [and] Pompeius Magnus: setting forth the great power, and deuine prouidence of almighty God, in preseruing the godly princes and common wealthes. Set forth by Richard Reynoldes, Doctor in Phisicke. Anno. 1571.'' 1571.</div>
 
 
  
 
<If you haven't done so already, also add here any key words that will help categorise this play. Use the following format, repeating as necessary: [[category:example]]>
 
<If you haven't done so already, also add here any key words that will help categorise this play. Use the following format, repeating as necessary: [[category:example]]>

Revision as of 12:56, 16 February 2011

Anon. (1596)
(see also Phocas, 1618/19)

Historical Records

F.15v/Greg 1.30:
ye 19 of maye 1596 ne . . R[d] at tragedie of ffocasse . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxxvs
ye 23 of maye 1596 R[d] at tragedie of ffocasse . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxixs
F.21v/Greg 1.42:
ye 4 of June 1596 R[d] at the tragedie of focas . . . . . . . . . . xxxjs
ye 16 of June 1596 R[d] at ffocase . . . . . . . . . . xxs
ye 22 of June 1596 R[d] at focas . . . . . . . . . . ls
ye 5 of July 1596 mr pd R[d] at focasse . . . . . . . . . . xxijs
ye 17 of July 1596 R[d] at focas . . . . . . . . . . xxixs

F.45v/Greg 1.86:

Lente vnto the company the 16 of maye 1598 to buye}

v boocks of martine slather called ij ptes of hercolus. } vijll
& focas & pethagoras & elyxander & lodicke wch laste}. . .

boock he hath not yet delyuerd the some of . . .. . . .}


Theatrical Provenance

Introduced as a new play by the Admiral's men in the same run which saw Julian the Apostate and Tamar Cham (or Tambercame) marked "ne". It received 7 performances. Martin Slater was paid £7 on behalf of the Admiral's men for this and 4 other books (Pythagoras, Alexander and Lodowick, and the two parts of Hercules) on the 16 of May 1598, which suggests (as Chambers notes) that he had retained ownership of these plays when he left the company (2.167).


Probable Genre(s)

Classical history (Harbage).


Possible Narrative and Dramatic Sources or Analogues

focas.jpg
From Rainolde fol.165 (EEBO).

Phocas is often mentioned in early modern texts. Here's one of the more succinct summaries of the Emperor's barbarous ways --- a chronicle of Roman Emperors, by Richard Rainolde, in which the marginal note simply designates Phocas "a tyrant":

Phocas a base Centurion and a Thracian in ye seditious vprore was created an Emperour. He murtheringe his maister and kinge Mauritius of whom he was brought vp, this Phocas gouerned vii. yeares, he was Crowned at Constantinople of the patriarcke Ciriacus. Assone as Mauritius was slaine, immediatly he exercised crueltye against his frends: After he was placed in the Emperial seate without all nobility, as by bloudye practises he obtayned the same, so he exercised himselfe to the destruction of the Romaines with all crueltye tormenting them, geuen ouer to all abhomination. He toke awaye other mens wyues from their husbands: he made much of wicked persons: He wasted the Romayne Empyre of their riches and treasures: he liued at Rome in all beastly dronkennes, and suffered the Romaine Empyre to be spoyled of the Persians, of the Hunnes, and of Caganus kinge of Hungarye who~ I spake of before. The wrathe of God fell vpon this murtherer, and all that hoast & power of men which was ye ouerthrow of Mauritius and priuye to his death. For Cosroes in .ii. great battailes made slaughter of the Romaynes infinitlye, and ye rest he ledde away captiues. This Cosroes wanne from the Romaynes Hierusalem, and murthered there a greate nomber of Christia~s, he possessed the Dominion of Cyria & destroyed manye Princes.

Phocas thorow his ill life came in hatred, not onlye of the Romaynes, but also of al other Princes: ye murther of Mauritius committed by Phocas was not forgotten. Priscus who in the time of Mauritius was one of his chiefe Captaynes, & also a Duke & sonne in law to Phocas: also Heraclius Preside~t in Affrica whose wyfe Phocas had taken away, all these conspyred against Phocas to destroy him. This was ye effect of their purpose, that at one time Priscus shoulde bringe his hoast of Thracians to Consta~tinople, & Heraclius his hoast out of Affrica to Consta~tinople also, Photius with another part to set vpon Phocas in his Pallace, wher small resista~ce was made, these entring ye Emperours house, toke Phocas & brought him to Heraclius ye sonne of Heracliona who was then generall of the partes in Assyria. Immediatly the men of warre cut of his legges and armes, and cutte of his priuities, and last of all his head. This was the ende of that tyrant, who before murthered the Emperour Mauritius, hys wyfe, his children, his kinsfolke and frendes, and plagued wt all calamyes the Romaynes: God neuer leaueth vnpunished any murther committed, & most of all he scourgeth the bloudye factes of those who seekes to destroy theyr owne king or Prince, and be domesticall vipers to theyr owne countrye. (Fols.165r-v)


Purchase also summarises the key details of the Roman emperor's reign:

This Cosroes raigned nine and thirtie yeares. Hee held peace with the Romanes whiles Mauritius liued; but when Phocas cruelly and treacherously had slaine him, a world of euils at once assaulted the Empire. The Germanes, Gaules, Italians, Hunnes, and Persians, by their Armies afflicted the publike State; and the Roman Bishop then began to aspire to an vniuersall Soueraignetie, which that Murtherer first entitled him vnto. That Armie which was yet redde with the bloud of Mauritius, by the Persians sword was punished, and died in their owne bloud: who hauing ouerthrowne the Romanes in two battailes, possessed Mesopotamia, Syria, Aegypt, Palaestina, and Phoenicia. He entred Ierusalem, slew and captiued many Christians, and carried thence the Crosse. Against the Iberians, Armenians, Cappadocians, Galatians, Paphlagonians, euen vnto Chalcedon, hee preuailed. Thus did GOD punish that Murtherer, and besides (to pay him in his owne coyne) Priscus, Heraclon, and Heraclius conspired against this Conspirer, and murthered the Murtherer, and hauing cut off his Priuities, and his Head, hurled him into the Sea, and destroyed his Issue. (308)


Greg observes that "Phocas, a centurion, was elected Emperor of Constantinople in 606, and was deposed and killed by Heraclius in 610" (Greg 2.180).


References to the Play

(information welcome)


Critical Commentary

Bentley notes that "[i]t is not likely that there was any connexion between Henslowe's play and that of the learned schoolmaster [Bernard]" (3.28).


For What It's Worth

Works Cited

Bentley 3.


Greg 2.


Purchase, Samuel. Purchas his pilgrimage. Or Relations of the vvorld and the religions obserued in all ages and places discouered, from the Creation vnto this present. In foure partes. This first containeth a theologicall and geographicall historie of Asia, Africa, and America, with the ilands adiacent. Declaring the ancient religions before the Floud ... With briefe descriptions of the countries, nations, states, discoueries, priuate and publike customes, and the most remarkable rarities of nature, or humane industrie, in the same. By Samuel Purchas, minister at Estwood in Essex. London, 1613.


Rainolde, Richard. A chronicle of all the noble emperours of the Romaines from Iulius Caesar, orderly to this moste victorious Emperour Maximilian, that now gouerneth, with the great warres of Iulius Caesar, [and] Pompeius Magnus: setting forth the great power, and deuine prouidence of almighty God, in preseruing the godly princes and common wealthes. Set forth by Richard Reynoldes, Doctor in Phisicke. Anno. 1571. 1571.

<If you haven't done so already, also add here any key words that will help categorise this play. Use the following format, repeating as necessary:>


Site created and maintained by David McInnis, University of Melbourne; updated 16 Feb 2011.